trialdex ™ litigation tools

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)


Why are pattern jury instructions so important?

  • The pattern instructions explain—in plain language—how evidence should be viewed, what needs to be proven, and what the defenses are.
  • They are accompanied by concise legal annotations written by judges that address all commonly litigated trial issues. In other words, they are bullet-proof authority on most issues of consequence.

Competent trial lawyers know them cold at the very beginning of every case.

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Why should I consult instructions from outside my circuit?

  • Not all circuits have pattern instructions. If your circuit does not have pattern instructions, it is obviously beneficial to look at how each circuit views your theory of the case, and to pick the language that best presents your client's view.
  • Even circuits with pattern instructions may miss statutes or subjects covered in other circuits.
  • If your circuit's instructions are several years old, they may not address the latest legal developments (e.g., new legislation or a new Supreme Court decision).
  • A topic treated in a cursory manner in your circuit might be the subject of an extended, well-reasoned annotation in another circuit, and suggest a claim or defense that had not occurred to you.

You won't know until you have looked at every circuit. That's why they are all collected here in a common index.

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What instructions are indexed on trialdex?

Trialdex indexes all federal civil and criminal instructions and annotations that have official or quasi-official status (this includes unofficial instructions from the First Circuit). These instructions may also be browsed or full text searched.

Trialdex does not index secondary source instructions available on pay sites. This would include O'Malley (sometimes called "Devitt/Blackmar") instructions (available on Westlaw), Modern Federal ("Sands") (Lexis), and DC Red/Blue book instructions (Lexis). These instructions are helpful if you have the proper subscriptions, but they are not as authoritative as official instructions.

Other sources for federal jury instructions are listed in the Third Circuit's Model Civil Jury Instructions at Appendix Two.

Trialdex does not index state instructions, but links to any state instructions that are posted on the Internet can be found here, along with a box that allows you to full text search them.

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How does the full text search box work?

The trialdex search boxes on the front page and the jury instructions links page work by sending your queries to Google, where documents containing the search term are displayed on a results page. You may need to use Ctrl F (find in page) to locate your search term after opening the target document.

Due to Google limits on query size, which in turn limits the number of sites that can be searched simultaneously, the search box uses "radio buttons" to break up the search into three discrete searches: federal (all the federal circuits); state (AL-LA) (Alabama-Louisiana); and state (MA-WA) (Massachusetts-Washington).

Some courts do not post instructions on the Internet, so those instructions will not be picked up by the search engine. Also, although the trialdex queries attempt to screen out documents that are not jury instructions, some documents that are not instructions may show up in the results.

This is, therefore, an imprecise tool, but a helpful one. For best results, supplement your search by using the other jury instruction research tools on the site.

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How up-to-date are the trialdex instructions?

Keeping current with new or amended instructions is a challenge, since the courts post the changes without any notice. So I check the federal sites for changes every week. Keeping up with state changes is a bit problematic, but links for checking them are posted here.

When I see a federal update, I detail the changes on the trialdex jury instruction blog, and email jury instruction alerts to anyone who has signed up for them. This is a free service, and that list is not used for any other purpose.

Note that subscription sites like Westlaw and Lexis are much more casual about updates; they can take months (sometimes over a year) to post new or modified federal instructions.

No matter which service you use, it is good practice to double check the official sites (conveniently linked here) before citing a pattern instruction.

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Can I sign up to be notified when instructions are revised?

Yes. Send an email request to to receive free jury instruction email alerts whenever a federal circuit adds or revises a pattern jury instruction. The email will link expert commentary in the trialdex jury instruction blog with, where helpful, a redline/strikeout view of the changes.

Your email address will be stored offline, and will not be used for any other purpose. All emails will come with an "opt out" link.

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Is there a table of cases or statutes?

  • Every United States Supreme Court decision cited in a federal instruction or annotation appears in the trialdex index.
  • Every reference to a United States Code (U.S.C.) statute, C.F.R. provision, or federal rule in a federal instruction or annotation is linked linked as well. Just click on the usc, cfr, or rules links at the end of the alpha list.

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Why does the link sometimes take me to page one of the PDF?

The trialdex index links to the formats that are on the official sites (PDF, DOCX, WPD), but the principal link will typically be to a PDF copy. There is a way to craft PDF links so that they take you to the specific page where the instruction appears, and most trialdex PDF links are constructed to work that way.

This works fine if you are using Chrome, Firefox, or Opera, but other browsers, notably (at this writing) Edge and Safari, will ignore the page number and send you to page one of the PDF (explanation). Also, the page numbers in some circuit tables of contents are unreliable; in those cases the link may take you to the beginning of a section of instructions, or a table of contents.

This should not be a critical issue. If the link does not send you to the precise page, just scroll down, or use your browser's Ctrl-F ("find in page") command to navigate to the specific instruction.

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What is the trialdex federal crimes statute tracker?

The trialdex Federal Crimes Statute Tracker displays a visual history of United States Code provisions that describe commonly charged federal felonies. It works like the "versions" feature on Westlaw, with the addition of a redline/strikeout view of the precise changes.

screen shot

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Which statutes are tracked?

The trialdex Federal Crimes Statute Tracker covers all of the most commonly charged federal felonies that have had amendments since 1990.

The crimes were compiled by listing every crime covered by an official pattern jury instruction, and then checking each of those statutes to see if there have been amendments in the last thirty years.

So if the statute is not listed, it is either a statute that is too obscure to merit an official instruction, or a statute that has no recent amendments.

If I have missed a statute of consequence, please email me, and I will add it.

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What are trialdex tools?

Trialdex tools are infographics accompanied by questions and answers (Q&As) that walk you through complex legal problems. Current tools include:

How do they work?


How do they work?

Trialdex litigation tools may be used to spot issues and identify important authority (rules, statutes, Supreme Court cases). They are intended to replicate the organized thinking process of a legal expert. They are accompanied by infographics, but the Q&A format permits explanations of the legal terms that would not fit in the chart.

For example, the infographic for the lawful interrogation tool can be viewed by clicking on the image on the right, but there is no room on the chart for definitions of the legal terms (e.g., "custody" or "interrogation") or case citations. That information is available in the Q&As.

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Are the tools formal legal advice?

No, they are not, and they do not create an attorney-client relationship with the reader. The suggested answers are the beginning of your legal research, not the end. This should be self-evident, since trialdex tools are functionally similar to any secondary legal resource (just a bit smarter). A trialdex tool will give you a suggested issue or result, and a case or other authority to use in continuing with conventional research.

It should be noted that the answers are based on federal law, and do not directly address state constitutions or statutes. But federal authority is often persuasive in state litigation (state rules tend to be modeled on federal rules).

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Are the tools just for lawyers?

No. The lawful interrogation and automobile search tools, for example, can be used by defense attorneys, prosecutors, and judges to spot issues and leading cases before proceeding with conventional legal research.

But they may also be used by police officers. In most cases, officers will know from training and experience whether to proceed with questioning or a search, but these tools can be used to confirm those judgments, and to assist in framing questions for police legal advisors. The charts posted here are also freely available as training aids.

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Who pays for this site?

I do. There are no third-party ads, pop ups, cookies, tracing, or any hidden method of generating income. I don't solicit or accept donations. The site is completely free.

That being said, I have a couple of suggestions of ways that you can show your appreciation:

  • Link my site. If you have a Web page, blog, or some similar presence on the Internet, please link my site. The content on this site is of high quality, and it's regularly updated. It is nevertheless hard to find with Google searches. I've studied the issue, and have done all of the sorts of things that one can honestly do to boost a site's visibility. But it seems clear that links from other Web pages would be helpful, so please give me a link.
  • Buy my books. I have written a couple of books, 360 Federal Crimes and A Detective's Guide to Interrogation Law. They are linked on the upper right hand corner of the trialdex front page. Take a moment to click on the links and use the Amazon "look inside" feature to get a sense of the quality of the content. The books are reasonably priced (especially the Kindle editions), and the reviews have been favorable. If you decide to purchase a copy, please consider taking a few minutes to post an Amazon review.

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How do I offer suggestions, corrections, or get more help?

Click on the contact link at the bottom of the page.

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